President’s Lecture Series – Dr. Ellen Ochoa

President’s Lecture Series – Dr. Ellen Ochoa


>>Welcome, to the 2019
President’s Lecture Series. Featuring distinguished lecturer and honorary doctorate
recipient Dr. Ellen Ochoa. [ Spanish Spoken ] Please welcome to the stage
our president’s platform party. College of Sciences Physics
Professor Dr. Jeffrey Davis, College of Sciences Dean
Dr. Jeffrey Roberts, California State University
Trustee Dr. Jack McGrory, Dr. Ellen Ochoa, San Diego State
University President Dr. Adela de la Torre. [ Applause ]>>Good afternoon, and welcome to the 2019 President’s Lecture
Series featuring distinguished speaker and alumna
Dr. Ellen Ochoa. I’m Dr. Jeffrey Roberts, Dean
of the College of Sciences. And I’d like to begin
this afternoon’s program with a land acknowledgement. For millennia, the Kumeyaay
people have been part of this land. This land has nourished, healed,
protected and embraced them for many generations
in a relationship of balance and harmony. As members of the San Diego
State community we acknowledge this legacy, we promote
this balance and harmony, we find inspiration from this
land, the land of the Kumeyaay. I would now like to welcome
our guests with us today who include San Diego State
University faculty, staff, alumni, local high school and
community college students, community members,
and many others. Also, a very special welcome to Dr. Ochoa’s family
here with us today. Thank you for joining us. [ Applause ] We’ll now begin our program
by honoring a person who, through a life of
service and excellence, has exemplified the purpose of
this university, its faculty, its students, and its staff. In the 122-year history
of this university only 50 such individuals have
been similarly recognized. The practice of awarding
honorary degrees, today a Doctor of Science degree is an
ancient custom that traces back to the beginning of academia. And it’s the highest honor
that an institution can bestow. California State University
Trustee Dr. Jack McGrory will now share with all of us just
why we’re bestowing this honor on Dr. Ellen Ochoa. [ Applause ]>>Thank you. In a world of higher education
there is no more prestigious award than the granting
of an honorary degree. This is not something
for which you can apply. You do not get to
nominate yourself. In fact, you will never
know you were nominated until our board makes a
confidential determination. The review process is
complex, lengthy, and rigorous. A nominee and their
qualifications are challenged and reviewed multiple times,
both at the campus with review by faculty senate and by
the chancellor’s office. It is then further reviewed
by a committee of trustees and ultimately by
the full board. To even be considered that trustees’ criteria
are very stringent. First, to recognize
inspirational character, excellence, and extraordinary
achievement in significant areas of human endeavor
that reflect the objectives and ideals of California
State University. Second, to honor a meritorious
and outstanding service to the California
State University or to individual campuses,
the State of California, the United States, or
to humanity at large. Third, to recognize individuals
whose lives, conduct, and significant achievement
serve as examples of the California State
University’s aspirations for its diverse student body. In short, we are extremely
selective as we choose the best of best amongst our midst. It is only fitting that we
honor one such individual today. I would now like to
ask Dr. Ellen Ochoa and President de la Torre to
join me here at the podium as I read the citation that
accompanies the honorary degree. [ Applause ] I think it’s safe to say that
Ellen Ochoa met every one of our trustee criteria. She’s an inspirational role
model for today’s young people, particularly girls and
underrepresented minorities who aspire to careers
in science, technology, engineering
and math. The first Hispanic
female astronaut, she capped a 30-year
career with NASA by serving for the last five as director of the Johnson Space
Center in Houston, Texas. Supervising a workforce
of 10,000 civil servant and contract employees, Dr. Ochoa was the
first Hispanic director of the Johnson Space Center
and its second female leader. Dr. Ochoa graduated from San
Diego State University in 1980 with a degree in physics and
later earned her master’s and doctoral degrees in
electrical engineering from Stanford University. Before joining NASA, she
was a research engineer and co-inventor of
three patented optical analysis systems. In 1993, she participated in
her first space flight for NASA, a nine day mission aboard the
Shuttle Discovery conducting atmospheric studies to determine
the effects of solar activity and human activity on the
earth’s environment and climate. During that flight and
three subsequent missions, Dr. Ochoa logged nearly 1,000
hours in orbit and served in various roles including
mission specialist, flight engineer,
and Palo commander. She was also aboard the
first shuttle to dock with the International
Space Station. We’ll get there. [Applause] Only one more page. A powerful ambassador for NASA,
Dr. Ochoa has delivered more than 300 presentations
promoting careers in science and engineering. In school visits across the
United States she embodies the importance of motivation,
teamwork, and higher education. Six schools are named
in her honor. In California, Texas,
Washington, and Oklahoma. Dr. Ochoa has received
NASA’s highest award, the Distinguished
Service Medal as well as the Presidential
Distinguished Rank Award for Outstanding Senior
Executives in the Federal Government. She’s a fellow of the American
Association for the Advancement of Science and the American
Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, vice chair
of the National Science Board, and chair of the Nomination
and Evaluation Committee for the National Medal of
Technology and Innovation. In 2017, she was inducted into
the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame. In recognition of Dr.
Ochoa’s extraordinary role in U.S. Space Exploration
and her commitment to the scientific education of
young people across the country, the Board of Trustees of
California State University and San Diego State
University are proud to confer upon her the honorary
degree of Doctor of Science. [ Applause ]>>I am pleased that
the university is able to honor Dr. Ellen Ochoa
in this special way. On the recommendation of
the faculty and on behalf of the Board of Trustees of the
California State University, I hereby award you the
degree of Doctor of Science with all the honors, rights, and
privileges pertaining thereto. Congratulations, Dr. Ochoa. [ Applause ] [ Background Noise ] [ Laughter ]>>Thank you. [ Applause ] What an exciting
day it is for SDSU. It’s now my great
pleasure to welcome you to today’s President’s
Lecture Series. I’m glad to see so
many devoted supporters of the university here today. A great reflection
of the partnerships between the university
and our community. Our university has
been an integral part of San Diego for 122 years. And one of the most
important purposes of the President’s
Lecture Series is to enhance collaboration
between the university and the community. Through these collaborations
we are making discoveries and creating a better future. Through these collaborations
our students are learning how to improve the global
society they will lead. Today we are extremely
honored to recognize and welcome back one of those
graduates, Dr. Ellen Ochoa, Class of ’80, and SDSU’s 51st
honorary doctorate recipient. Before welcoming Dr.
Ochoa to the podium, I’d like to share a significant
contribution she recently made to our university
with a $100,000 gift to establish The
Ellen Ochoa Endowment for the Femineer Program in
the College of Engineering. [ Applause ] The Femineer Program at SDSU is
one of only three in the nation and works diligently to inspire
and empower K-12 female students to pursue science, technology,
engineering, and mathematics in their education
and future careers. The students are taught
through project-based learning and are paired with SDSU
female engineering mentors. Thank you, Dr. Ochoa,
for paying it forward and supporting our current
and future STEM leaders. I would now like to excuse
our stage party as we begin “From San Diego State to Space.” [ Applause ]>>All systems go on the
ground and in the air. [ Music and sound effects ]>>Wow. What a great
little video. Thank you so much. [ Applause ] Well first, I want to start off by thanking President de
la Torre, Dean Roberts, the Trustee McGrory,
Professor Davis for the honor and for participating in
the ceremony just now. You know, I truly
couldn’t have imagined it. Thank you to other university
leaders who are here today and a big welcome to all the
students and all the supporters of San Diego State who’ve
joined us this afternoon. You know, it’s just amazing to
be chosen for an honorary degree by my alma mater and one I
certainly couldn’t have imagined when I was a student here. And I also want to
thank the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation
because it’s through that foundation that I
was able to designate the gift for the Femineer Program. I’m on the board of trustees
of the Moore Foundation and they allow trustees to
designate recipients for gifts. So, it’s actually the
foundation’s funds and I’m very grateful to
them, that through them, I was able to support
such a wonderful program as the Femineer Program. I was really fortunate to
grow up just a few miles away in La Mesa, California. I’m a graduate of
Grossmont High School. Go Foothillers [applause]. Any Foothillers here? And just to tell you a little
bit more about my background. I think a lot of you know, my
dad’s parents were from Mexico. They were married and had some
of their first kids in Mexico but by the time my dad was
born, he was the youngest of 12, they had moved to southern
California to the Anaheim area. My mom’s from Oklahoma but
they met in California. My dad was able to go to college because he got an appointment
to the Naval Academy. So, his family wasn’t required
to pay for his college education and that was obviously
very important to him. Now my parents divorced
while I was in high school and while they were both
big supporters of education, certainly my mom is one who had
just a huge impact on my life. She attended San Diego State, really the whole time my
four brothers and sisters and I were growing up here,
and she would literally come on campus for one
class a semester. Semester after semester,
year after year and for a long time it really
wasn’t in support of a degree, it was because she
was interested in so many different things. And she was very grateful that there was a
local university here where she could go
off and do that and still raise our
whole family. And I think that’s
something that I and all of my siblings really
took away from that. Education was important but it was also just
really interesting. And the ability to be
able to learn a variety of different things is something that serves us well
our entire life. She did, by the way, eventually,
you know, collect enough credits and made it into a degree and
graduated two years after I did. So, she has a degree from
San Diego State as well. [ Applause ] And I should also mention that
my sister, two of my brothers, and two of my nieces also have
degrees from San Diego State. So, [applause] thank you. So, perhaps like many of you in the audience this university
here has been, of course, hugely important to my family
and probably important to many of your families as well. You know, at Grossmont High
School I enjoyed my literature classes, my math classes,
I was in the concert band and the marching band, but for
some reason, yeah [laughter]. For some reason I had just
decided I wasn’t interested in science. So, hardly took any science. Did not take any
chemistry or physics. And even though I was
actually the top math student at my high school, nobody ever
really mentioned to me like, well maybe you should study,
you know, science or engineering or something that uses math. And so, I came to San
Diego State knowing that I had a whole wide variety
of departments and subjects that I could choose from. And as I said, I was
interested in music. I was also thinking
about business. But I had the ability
to take a lot of different classes
while I was here, and I was very fortunate
also at that time that actually the state
supported it so well and we didn’t actually
even have tuition. And I got a scholarship
from San Diego State that actually covered my books and parking and things
like that. So, I was able to come
here very affordably. Which, as I mentioned, my
mom was also in school here, my sister was in school here,
my brother was in college, and so being able to do that
was incredibly important to us. But as I came here one of
the things that I followed up on was taking
more math classes. So, I had taken the first
semester of calculus in high school and then
I was able, I went on and took the next couple of
semesters in the first couple of years that I was here. And by the kind of the
time I got towards the end of the calculus series
I thought, you know, I should ask other
students in the class, you know, why they’re in here. And, of course, they were
in there because they were in general some kind of engineering major
or physics major. And I was like well I
was just in here for fun. You know, [laughter] trying to,
you know, because I liked it. So, you know, I was
still kind of trying to decide what I wanted to do, and I thought well I should
go off and talk to, you know, go explore some of these other
departments a little bit. So, I went to talk
to a professor in the Electrical Engineering
department at the time who was the student advisor
and told him, you know, I was interested in learning
more about the department. And, you know, you have to
remember this was 1976 or ’77 and what he, he was
clearly not interested in having me in his department. He said well, you know,
coursework’s really difficult. You know, we did
have a woman come through here once [laughter]. And then, you know,
he started picking up components off his desk. You know, you’ll have
to work with these. And, to be honest, I really
had no idea what they were. And, you know, really
didn’t tell me anything that was relevant to
me actually learning about electrical engineering. Well I went to the
Physics department and had quite a different
experience. I had taken one physics
for non-majors class. And so, I was actually
talking to that professor. And first of all, he said well
you did very well in my class. Tell me a little
bit about what kind of math background you’ve had. And so, I said well I’m
finishing up the calculus series and I have the top
grade in the class. And he goes, well that’s
fantastic, he said. Because, you know, math and
calculus, in particular, is the language of physics. So, if you started into the
physics series, you know, for majors next semester,
you know, you’d be able to concentrate on the concepts
that we’re teaching whereas most of the people in that class
will be taking calculus and physics concurrently. And they’ll be trying
to learn the language and concepts at the same time. And he said, you know, I think
you’d probably do very well. And then the other thing that
he talked to me about was, you know, what kinds of things
people do with physics degrees, different areas that you
can go into, different kinds of jobs that you can have. And that was incredibly
important because I didn’t
know any scientists. I didn’t know any engineers. I honestly had just no concept
of what it is that you did with a physics degree
which is probably one of the reasons I hadn’t
thought about it prior to that. So, I think you can tell that
the kinds of conversations that professors and
advisors have with students are
incredibly powerful. And probably doesn’t
surprise you that I thought well
I’ll give physics a try. Actually, never made it back
to the Engineering department until today [laughter]. So– So, I, you know, I
transferred to physics and really had a good experience
there and one of the things that we did in physics
before you graduate is in senior year you have a senior
project, a research project. So, it gives you a chance
to do some research and also to explore an area in a
little bit more depth. And through one of my math
classes I was a math minor in Fourier Transforms. I got very interested in learning a little bit
more about Fourier Optics. And how lenses can
take Fourier Transforms and how you can build
optical systems to extract information
from images. So, I ended up doing my
senior project in that area with a fairly new professor
here in the Physics department. But he joined us up here
just a few minutes ago, Professor Jeff Davis. And he’s still teaching here and still introducing
students to optics. So, that’s really
how I got my start. And then, you know, as you
see there’s bulletin boards in all the department offices
around here and through, you know, notices that I saw on the Physics department
bulletin boards I got some different summer jobs where I
had a chance to do research. One was in, actually in a
biochemistry lab at UCSD, a fellowship through the
American Heart Association. So, it wasn’t quite in
physics, but it was a chance to do research in an
actual laboratory. And then I spent
two summers working at Los Alamos National Lab,
again, through, you know, a sign I saw on a bulletin
board in the Physics department about that opportunity. And those were great
introductions to research, and I decided I wanted to go
on and research and sort of go down the path of being
a research engineer. So, I went off to Stanford
for graduate school. There’s a very well-known
professor there, actually wrote the
textbook on Fourier Optics. So, he became my thesis advisor and I really had a wonderful
experience at Stanford as well. One more thing I need to mention about San Diego State was my
great experience two years as a marching Aztec and five
years in the wind ensemble. And so, I was telling somebody
earlier at lunch that, you know, they were like, you
know, what did you do for like stress relief, you
know, while you were in school? I said, well, I think I
had four solid semesters where I was taking
four physics classes, a physics lab and wind ensemble. And it was really nice
to get to wind ensemble. Just needed that different
part, you know, of me to be able to sort of deal with everything. So, off at Stanford I also had
the chance to play music there which was one of the
reasons I picked Stanford. But the end of my
first year there is when the space shuttle flew
for the very first time. And, of course, that was a very
different kind of space craft than had ever flown before. And it could do a variety
of different things. It could launch satellites,
it could retrieve them, it could help build
structures in space. But a big part of what it
was going to be used for was as a laboratory to do science and engineering research
in space. And since I was on track to
become a research engineer to me, you know, the thought
of being able to do research in a unique laboratory, experiments you couldn’t
do anywhere else because of either you were in
a microgravity environment, or you were above the earth’s
atmosphere, or you had access to almost a complete vacuum, you
know, was just very exciting. But still, you know, I
was really just starting into my Ph.D. program and
wasn’t giving that much thought to what I was going
to do afterwards. But a couple of years later when
I was about halfway through, Sally Ride flew in space,
first American woman. And that was a huge deal. In fact, a few years earlier when NASA had selected the
first group of astronauts to train specifically for
this space shuttle which was under development then,
that was the class that included the
first six women and also the first
minority astronauts. And I was here at San
Diego State at the time and those were just
huge milestones because these were careers that just weren’t open
to women before that. It didn’t matter, you know,
what you did or what you studied or how hard you worked,
they weren’t open to women and now they finally were. So, I made the decision that as
soon as I finished up my Ph.D, I would apply to NASA. So, I did. I got my doctorate, applied to
NASA, figured I would never hear from them again, and went off
to work for Sandia National Labs in Livermore, California which
is a Department of Energy lab. As, you know, as a research
staff member in the area that I was in, or the
building that I was in which included a few
different research areas. There were 60 members of the
professional research staff. And I was the only woman
there which, you know, the odds weren’t too exciting, but they have gotten
better throughout the years. A couple years later I was
contacted by NASA actually to come interview at
Johnson Space Center. So, that was my very
first opportunity to be at any NASA center and
particularly the one where human space
flight took place. Had the chance to talk to
astronauts for the first time to really find out more about
what the career was like. Because really, you know, you
know what you see on the news, but you don’t really have
a good idea what it’s like. Got to see a lot of the training
facilities and got a very, very thorough medical
evaluation. [Laughter] So, I wasn’t selected
during that selection. That was the 1987 class, but
I could also see some areas where I could get experience that might help me
as I tried again. One of those was, I
really didn’t have any operational experience. You know, I was a researcher,
I worked in a lab, you know, I wrote technical papers,
went to conferences, and those were all
very good background, but didn’t really have
any experience, you know, in a real-time environment. So, I went off and
got a pilot’s license and also decided I wanted
to work for NASA even if I was never selected
as an astronaut. So, I moved to NASA Ames
Research Center which is also in the Bay Area in California
and had the chance first, to be a member of a
research group there, and then just a few months later
to head up a research group of about 35 people that were
all working in some area of high performance computing,
potentially for space missions. So, three years later, NASA had
their next astronaut selection and I was called
again to interview and that was the year I
was selected, in 1990. So, along with 22
other people I went off to Johnson Space Center
in Houston, Texas. And the first year we
basically all trained together, kind of as a class. And a lot of it was a lot like
school and I had spent 10 years in college, so I was
really good at school. And, you know, we got a big
stack of workbooks to read through about all the
different shuttle systems and we had lectures and then
we were working one-on-one with trainers to understand
more about, in detail, about the shuttle procedures,
the cockpit, you know, when you use which
switches, you know, how you recovered
from malfunctions. And there was about 2,000
switches including circuit breakers in the space shuttle
flight deck and mid-deck. So, it wasn’t just like 10. But there were other parts
of the training that were, you know, very different than
anything I’d ever done before. Learning to fly in a high
performance jet, learning how to eject out of an
aircraft, how you would land under a parachute, actually
getting to be picked up out of the water by a
Coast Guard helicopter. So, I mean, I hadn’t even
been a Girl Scout [laughter]. So, those were things that
were pretty far outside of my experience, not
to mention comfort zone. But the nice thing was,
once you’ve made it through the selection process,
NASA actually wants you to succeed as an astronaut. They want you to learn
the skills that you need and be able to demonstrate them. So, people were very helpful, including my astronaut
classmates, a lot of whom were
from the military. We were about half
military, half civilian. And so, it was a very
interesting, fun, and challenging experience
overall. And then after that first year, we spent a second year
doing part-time training and getting more specialized. So, one of the things I started
training on was the robotic arm. And then we were assigned jobs that supported the
ongoing shuttle mission. And then at the end
of my second year or so I was assigned
to my first mission. And my first two
missions were really kind of exactly what I was thinking
about when I first thought about wanting to be an astronaut
and applying for the program. Because it was an opportunity
to do research in space that couldn’t be
done on the ground. And we were specifically
studying the earth’s atmosphere and the problem of the ozone
hole and ozone depletion. And so, we had a suite of
instruments in the payload bay that were measuring many
different constituents in the atmosphere. And we were using the
sun as the light source. So, every time we did a sunrise
or a sunset as the sun sort of came up through
the atmosphere or disappeared behind it that
was the light source for many of these instruments
that would allow them to collect information
and understand what kind of constituents were
in the atmosphere. And, of course, a lot of what
we were particularly looking at was byproducts of
chlorofluorocarbons from aerosols that
people were using. And, of course, this was
at the time that the U.S. and many other countries
were cutting back on the use of aerosols because they
signed a protocol understanding that this was really
harming our upper atmosphere and destroying the
upper atmosphere, the stratospheric ozone. That’s like the good kind of
ozone that you really want to have there because it
prevents damaging ultraviolet rays from damaging humans
and other things on Earth. So, we were able to
contribute to that and also measure the amount
of light coming from the sun in many different wavelengths. And particularly the ultraviolet
because that is the wavelength that provides the energy
for the chemical reactions that both create
and destroy ozone. So, it was really
exciting and gratifying to be on those two flights. My third and fourth flights, a
few years later, were now part of assembling the
International Space Station. So, during the time I was flying
on my first couple of flights, the U.S. and particularly
NASA joined up with the Russian
Space Agency Roscosmos to develop an international
space agency. NASA had already been involved
in developing a space station which we were calling at that
time Space Station Freedom. And we were working with
the European Space Agency, the Japanese Space Agency,
and the Canadian Space Agency. Well now, we had
kind of changed. We were asked to particularly
form this partnership with Russia because this
was shortly after the end of the Cold War and both
countries were looking for opportunities for their
scientists and engineers to work together on a
peaceful collaboration. And that became the
International Space Station Program. And actually, one of my roles
in the office was to lead as the astronaut office support to the space station
program at this time. This was actually even before
any part of it was built, although it started to be
built during these years. And one of my jobs was to
actually negotiate with members of the Russian Space Agency and
their contractors on, you know, how were we going
to select crews? How were we going to train them? Where are we going
to train them? What language? Who was going to decide
on the curriculum? How were we going
to operate in space? What, you know, what language
were we going to speak? So, it was an incredibly
interesting time and something I had really
never thought about being a part of earlier on when
I was interested in the astronaut program. And then I was fortunate
enough to be on two flights that were part of the assembly of the International
Space Station. So, one of them was the
very first shuttle mission to dock with this station. The second shuttle overall
involved with the assembly. So, at that time it was just
two pieces, one Russian, one American that
were put together. It was about 40 feet long. Nobody was living on board because we didn’t have
a habitation module yet. So, our crew which
was multinational and included a Russian cosmonaut
and a Canadian astronaut, went up to bring a
number of supplies to leave inside the station
as well as some on the outside in preparation for
the first crews that would be living up there. And then I got to go
back three years later. Now the space station
is inhabited. We completed kind of what we
called Phase I of the assembly. So, we had the U.S.
laboratory on board. So, we were able
to do experiments. We had one large
solar array up there, so we were able to
power the lab. We had an airlock so we
could stage space walks from the station, not
just from the shuttle. And so, there were a lot
of things that we could do but we had quite a
bit of assembly to go. And in particular
we needed to be able to accommodate another
full laboratory module from the European Space
Agency and yet a third one from the Japanese Space Agency. And we needed to be able to
power all of these laboratories. So, we needed to bring up
three more large solar arrays and by large, they’re
actually 240 feet long. And so, we needed to build
out a big truss structure. It’s about 350 feet
long in total so we could hang these
solar arrays off of it and complete the
International Space Station. And our job on this mission was
to bring up the very first piece of that truss structure. And in just a few minutes
I will be showing a video from that flight that gives
you an idea of how we did that. But before I show it, I’ll
just continue on that, not only was I able
to participate in these two missions, but
I had the opportunity really throughout the rest of my
career at NASA to, in one way or another, support
the International Space Station Program. I also worked as the lead person
of the astronauts who work in Mission Control,
who are the ones who actually speak
to crews on orbit. And so, we had to figure out how
to transition from supporting in Mission Control just when
the shuttle flight was up. So, maybe 10 or 12 days every
few weeks to 24/7 operations. And our first crews arrived at
this space station in November of 2000 and we’ve
inhabited it ever since. So, if you think about
people who are freshmen or even second-year students
here at San Diego State, every moment of their lives
there have been people in space. So, we really are a spacefaring
country and we have learned, excuse me, so much
about living and working in space by being there. You know, next month it
will be 19 continuous years that we’ve had people in space. And after those jobs I was
offered some management and leadership positions at Johnson Space Center
including eventually becoming the Director of Johnson
Space Center. And, of course, Johnson
Space Center is the home of the International Space
Station Program office. So, everything that happens
on the station really is run through Johnson Space Center,
home of the astronauts, home of Mission Control. We’re responsible for human
health and performance in space. We have a large engineering
group that supports not only the
station, but development of future vehicles
including the Orion spacecraft and many more people, all
of whom are really focused on human space flight. So, a big part of my job was
making sure that everybody, you know, was focused on our
mission of human space flight, that we kept our crews safe
and productive in orbit, and that we were looking
forward to what was coming next in human space exploration
in addition to taking care of the whole team there. So, it was, you know, such a
huge privilege to be able to, I don’t really think
of leading them, I think of serving the people
at Johnson Space Center because they’re so talented, so
dedicated, really passionate. So, mostly you just try to
get them what they need, stay out of their way, and
they will get the job done. So, with that I would
like go ahead and show the video,
if we can start it. I’m going to narrate it. And again, most of it is
focused on this flight that I was talking to you about. But there’s also some
footage at the end of what this station
looks like today. So, this is our crew. This was in 2002. STS-110. As you know, all the
shuttle missions were numbered, so that was our mission. And we’re getting
ready to launch here. I was the flight engineer
on this mission so I’m kind of the one in the center
there in the second row. So, my job is to work
with the commander and pilot during the dynamic
phases of flight during launch, during landing, during
rendezvous with the space station. We kind of work as
a team, particularly if there are any problems. We have to work through them
with the procedures that we have and working with the ground. So, the shuttle’s a
combination of solid rockets, the white rockets on either
side of the main tank, and then the main tank holds
liquid fuel, liquid hydrogen, liquid oxygen and fuels the
main engines that you see here, the three main engines. So, the solid rocket
boosters burn for about the first two minutes
and they provide about 70% of the thrust during
those first two minutes but then they’re
all out of fuel. They separate away, go into
the ocean and were refurbished for future flights and we get
the rest of the way into orbit on the liquid engines. And then we spend
about the first day and a half rendezvousing with
the International Space Station. So, you saw a burn there
where you have to kind of hold on when you burn the engines so that you don’t go
flying through the cabin. But the commander
here, Mike Bloomfield, the pilot Steve Frick,
and I, again, are working together during
this rendezvous phase. Here’s what we looked like from
the space station’s perspective. And you can see that big piece of the truss structure really
takes up the whole payload bay. We referred to it as S0. And then this is what the
station looked like to us as we were coming up to it. We’re going to attach to
that silver ball as kind of in the upper center
of the view there. And here’s what it looks like
looking out the F flight deck of shuttle windows
just before contact. We’re coming up to
the space station. So, the space station’s
the upper part. The ring is attached to the shuttle there
and we make contact. We spend about 10 minutes
pulling the two vehicles together and then about two
hours doing a leak check. And our commander was very
happy with his flying skills. And then we open the hatch
and that’s the commander of the space station
Cosmonaut Yury Onufriyenko. So, those are the
two commanders. And we had the chance, there
were two other people living on board this station actually
members of my astronaut class. So, it was great to see them. They’d been on board
about four months. So, I think they were happy
to see some new faces. You know, a week later
I think they were just as happy to see us leave. You know, it’s kind of like when your relatives
come for the holidays. So, we started transferring
supplies. You can do it between
your knees not just in your hands when
you’re floating. And then the next morning was, we really started
we really started into the major part
of our mission. And I’m operating the robot arm
along with another astronaut. And so, we’re using the
station’s robot arm to pull S0 up out of the payload
bay and get it ready to attach to the station. This is what the robotics
workstation looks like. It’s in the middle of the
U.S. laboratory at this point. It got moved later. And you can see, actually
there’s no windows that you can look out and
actually see what you’re doing. So, you have to try to
find some camera views that give you an idea of
what all the different joints of the arms are doing. And then you have to
not be distracted by, that’s the Nile River back
there and the Gulf of Aqaba. It’s really important not
to be distracted by that. But here’s the final part. We’re moving S0 really onto
the top the zenith part of the station. And then that claw on the
right’s going to attach around a rod and that will
be the very first part of the connection. And that’s Astronaut Dan Bursch. He was actually the one that had
controls of the arm when we did that final attachment there. And then so, over the next
week as we were attached to the station our crew did a
series of forced space walks. And we used the robot
arm during all of these. So, I was inside
operating the robot arm and we always had a crew
member attached to the arm. So, moving them around. And what we had to do was form
the final structural attachment of S0 to the station,
so we added cable trays, we bolted down some struts,
and then they had a ton of different kinds of
cable connections to make in order power all the equipment
on the truss to allow us to send commands to
all the equipment and to get telemetry back. So, just a whole lot of
different connections that were made in order to really bring the
truss piece to life. Here you can see a
drill being used to bolt down the struts, actually. There’s actually a
person on the end of the arm there holding a
piece of equipment that looks like a v. Just kind of giving
you a different perspective. They had a really
good view of the earth as we’re moving them
around, of course. And then this is what it
looks like inside the station at the end of a spacewalk when
you bring the crew members and you’re about to
get them unsuited. Now this is on the shuttle side. Remember the shuttle’s
attached to the station. It was rodeo time in Houston, so
we brought up a Houston barbecue and invited the station
crew members over and kind of had a nice evening. Another astronaut, Rex Walheim
is showing off his two little boys doing a video
conference with home. Astronaut Steve Smith
shows you what liquid does when you let it loose in
the cabin in micro gravity, of course, the surface
tension takes over and forms that big sphere. And then at the end of the week
we completed all of our tasks and so we were going to get
ready to undock so we’re closing up the hatches in
preparation for that. And then again, the commander
and the pilot Steve Frick and me are working
on the undock. This is the target that
the pilot uses to back away and tries to stay in
the right corridor. And so, our job was to back away
about 400 feet, wait for sunrise and then do a complete fly around of the station taking
pictures the whole time so that we’d have very
good photo documentation of the station for
future assembly missions. So, you saw there maybe how
quickly sunrise happened when you’re going
17,500 miles an hour. It just takes a couple seconds. And again, here’s a view
of us from the station and you can see our
payload bay was empty. This is what the station
looked like to us when were about halfway through
that fly around. Some of the cameras and laser-ranging devices
we’re using during this part. This was probably our final
good view of the station. And that rectangle in the
middle is what we’ve just added to the station. So, after that we did a burn and moved much farther
away from the station. We spent a day checking
out all the systems that are needed for re-entry. And this is the final
morning of flight. We’re closing the payload bay
doors, getting ready to get in our seats for the landing. First, we get in these
special suits that we use just for launch and landing,
which can help protect you in certain kinds of emergencies. And now, here’s the very
final part of re-entry. We’ve already come through
the atmosphere and we’re over Florida and if you can
see the heads-up display there, we’re going about
290 knots passing through about 13,000 feet here. And now you can see the runway at Kennedy Space Center the
shuttle landing facility. And then this is really the very
final part of, as we’re coming in over the runway when we hit about 2,000 feet we
actually flare up. And remember, you know,
we have no engines running so there’s no power at all. We’re really a big glider,
kind of closer to rock in terms of how aerodynamic we are. So, we’re dropping very,
very rapidly which is why that pull-up is important. But the point is, we are
going to land and so we want to land on the runway. And we want to land at
approximately the right speed which is a little
over 200 knots. And so, our commander, again Mike Bloomfield,
did a great job. And we used these drag chutes
to help protect the tires and brakes during the rollout. Fortunately, we do have a
three mile long runway there which helps make the
rollout successful. So, that was the 11-day
mission of the STS-110. [Applause] Thank you. [ Applause ] So, this is what the
station looks like today. This is an actual photograph
of the station in orbit. It’s about a million pounds. You can see how long
the truss is now. You can see the four solar
arrays I talked about and the many more
modules that are up there, laboratory modules
and storage modules. So, there’s just a whole wide
variety of research going on. Some of it is on the outside. This is the alpha
magnetic spectrometer which collects cosmic
rays to understand more about dark matter and dark
energy in the universe. This is the inside of
the U.S. laboratory and it just gives
you an idea of some of the different science
facilities that we have that allow us to do
just a whole wide range of different types of research. This is astronaut Peggy Whitson. She’s working with stem
cells which are being turned, essentially turned into
cardiac cells to understand more about how they work together
to contract as heart muscle. Astronaut Kate Rubins. She was the very first
one to use a DNA sequencer that we sent up to station. And you can imagine how
important that will be on long duration missions
to Mars, for example, where we can monitor astronaut
health as well as the health of the spacecraft itself. This is astronaut
Kjell Lindgren. He’s working with
a flame experiment. And flames look quite
different in space than on earth as you see here. And they also have two different
regimes in which they combust. Sort of a high temperature
one and then again in a low temperature one. So, something that you
actually don’t see on earth that we have the
chance to investigate. Astronaut Scott Kelly is working
with the freezer that we have where we collect samples
primarily biological samples that we want to return to
earth that are part of some of the experiments that
we are involved in. Joe Acaba is working with the
capillary flow understanding how fluids move in microgravity
environments which are really
important for satellites and fuel for satellites. Some other types of experiments. A lot of universities’
students have written algorithms for this experiment called
spheres which we can then test out which allow them to understand how
objects can move in space. We have a 3D printer. I think this was the
first generation one. We now have, I think, the
third generation 3D printer. Again, something you can
imagine how important that would on a two or three
year mission to Mars. We have a number of experiments
looking at the earth that are on the outside of this station. That one in particular was
looking at wind direction and speed on the
surface of the ocean. But we have many
more others as well. We deployed, I don’t know,
well over a hundred cube sats for companies, for
laboratories, universities, even one elementary school
that developed a cube sat. And NASA itself is a customer of
the International Space Station and so we’re trying
to understand more about long duration
space flight. We flew this module from Bigelow
Aerospace using technology licensed from Johnson
Space Center to understand about expandable modules. We’ve also been growing
plants primarily lettuce but also flowers. We can learn more about plant
physiology but also we want to understand how to
provide fresh food for long duration missions. The astronauts themselves
are subjects for a lot of the experiments and it
is really important for them to exercise a couple
of hours each day to preserve their bone
mass and muscle mass. A few years ago, Scott Kelly and cosmonaut Mikhail Kornienko
spent just about a year in space, 340 days actually. And, again, this was
trying to understand more about human health and
performance in space and what happens over time. So, they’re still actually
analyzing a lot of the data but there’s a number of
papers out about that. All astronauts, whether
on the ground in space, participate in educational
activities. And so, there’s down links going
on quite frequently with schools across the country
and, of course, around the world as well. And I had mentioned that
there’s number of experiments on the outside that
are studying the earth. And astronauts contribute
to that as well by taking their own photography. And you can actually follow
the astronauts on social media, on Twitter, Facebook, Instagram. They’re sending down photos
every day of the earth as well as of experiments
that they’re involved with on the International
Space Station. So, if you’re not following any of that I would encourage
you to do so. We have commercial partners where we buy services
to develop cargo. You just saw this SpaceX Dragon. This is the Northrup
Grumman Cygnus vehicle. So, for the last few
years they’ve been sending up supplies. And another company Sierra
Nevada is developing this Dream Chaser which I think is planning
to fly in 2021 to deliver cargo. And then we have two companies
that are developing services to send our astronauts. So, this is the simulation. This is the Boeing capsule
that’s being developed, the Boeing Starliner. And then SpaceX is
developing the Crew Dragon. And we hope to see test flights
with our astronauts either at the end of this
year or sometime in the first part of next year. So, definitely something
to be looking forward to. Really an exciting time to
be in aerospace because of so many different companies
that are contributing. Meanwhile NASA’s moving
on beyond lower orbit. Johnson Space Center is
involved in the Orion Program which is this spacecraft
right here. And another center’s developing
that heavy lift launch vehicle that you just saw there, SLS. And the two will fly together
for the first time in 2021 and then hopefully
just a year or two after that the first
mission with crew on board. So, looking forward to going
out beyond lower orbit initially to the moon and onto Mars. And with that I want
to thank you very much for your attention today. It’s been my pleasure. [ Applause ]>>Thank you. Thank you, Dr. Ochoa, for
your inspiring presentation. I would now like
to open the floor to questions from the audience. You’ll see two microphone
stands located in the aisles and please line up between one
or the other and we’ll take as many questions as
we can for 15 minutes. So, don’t be shy. High school students especially. Grade school students. Okay. Stand on up. In the red there. Tell us your name, please.>>Giovanni.>>Hi there. What would you like to ask?>>How do you think you are
changing the world for women? [ Applause ]>>Well I kind of described to
me how important it was for me to see Sally Ride and some of the other first
women astronauts. And what it really gave
me was sort of the courage and the inspiration to think about doing something
really exciting and challenging with my life. And so, I hope that
me being here and the many other opportunities
that I have to talk to students that all have the same
effect on students as they think about
their future. And they realize like really
almost anything is possible. I mean, I really could not
have imagined this career even when I was a student
here at San Diego State.>>Thank you, [multiple
speakers] [Applause]>>Young gentleman
there in the white.>>Hi, thank you. I was wondering, so what
preventative measures did you do for the ISS to prevent like
deterioration over time because I think I read up
about the Mir Space Station. And that one was only in orbit
for like nine years or something because of different
bacteria and extremophiles and I was wondering,
since you’re such a big part making the new
space station, like what kind of ways did you do
to prevent that?>>So, there’s a
variety of things and there’s different things
that contribute to, you know, the space station sort of getting old if
you want to speak. Certainly, a big part
of keeping it going and keeping the astronauts
healthy is having clean air and clean water. So, we have systems inside
that scrub carbon dioxide out of the air that
provide oxygen. And also provide clean
water for the crew. And we actually even
have a system, you know, that recycles not only water,
but moisture out of the air. Recycles urine so, you know,
what the astronauts joke is, you know, we turn yesterday’s
coffee into tomorrow’s coffee. So, [laughter], but it works
very well and in fact, you know, it’s actually used in
communities here on the earth. Particularly in more
remote or rural communities where maybe they don’t
have access to clean water and they’re using some of
the technology and systems that have been developed
for the International Space Station Program. And then you also have to worry
about, just on the larger scale, structural issues and loads because we have space craft
either docking or undocking on the average of
every three weeks. And that all puts
loads on the station. So, we have a lot of really
smart structural engineers that try to understand,
you know, the loads that the station
undergoes and tries to make sure that it’s safe to
continue operations. And they think there’s
many, many more years of operation that’s possible. Of course, we need to
continue to be funded to operate it as well.>>Thank you. [Applause]>>We’ll go to the
other side, please.>>How does it feel to be
a woman and be the director of NASA when most of
your employees are men? [Laughter]>>Well, so first of
all, about a third of our employees are women so the ratios have
gotten a lot better. [Applause] And even when you look at
the people who are in science and engineering positions
it’s at least a couple of years ago it was
about 28% or so. So, not quite three out of
every 10 but we do pretty well but we still want to continue
to diversify our workforce in just the same way that
we’re trying to get more women to study and science
and engineering and math in high school and in college. But you know what? I never felt, by the
time I became director, first of all a lot
of people knew me. I was at Johnson Space
Center for a number of years. So, I don’t know that they
looked at me so much as a woman, but more as like, that’s Ellen. We know what she’s done. A lot of the work that
I accomplished either as an astronaut or in other
leadership positions before I became director, I think it
gave people an idea of what kind of a leader that I would be. And so, I really didn’t have
issues with being the director of the center even
though the majority of the people there were men. And I think I mentioned earlier
that, you know, we just have such a dedicated workforce. People are really passionate about supporting human space
exploration and they’re there because they want to
accomplish missions. And as long as they were
convinced that’s why I was there too, you know, it was
easy to lead them.>>Thank you. [Applause]>>Please.>>So, what are the
psychological effects of going into space? And how do you feel when
you return to earth?>>Well first of all, let
me just say that, you know, my longest mission was 11 days. And right now, we have
people, the average stay on the station is six months and occasionally people stay
even several months beyond that. So, my experience is going
to be different than somebody that has spent six months. But I didn’t, you know, I didn’t
really think there were a lot of psychological aspects. To me, you know, I’d
prepared for this mission, I trained with my
crew, and now I was up there working really hard
with my crew to carry it off. And you stay very busy and,
you know, you’re really, it’s really a mental job. You know, you’re focusing
really every moment of every day on all the procedures that
you’re doing because you want to make sure that you’re
doing everything right. And if there’s any small issues,
and there’s always small things that go wrong, you
know, where some piece of equipment isn’t
working quite right and you’re trying
to work through it. So, I think, you know, in
space you’re really just very, very focused on the job. And so, you know, and I was
there with other people, so it wasn’t like I was alone
or, you know, wondering, you know, kind of what my
place in the universe was. It’s like I had a job to do
and I had a team to do it with and I was really
focused on that. And then coming back
to earth, you know, there’s definitely some
physiological changes. And again, if you come
back after six months, they’re much more extreme
than what I experienced, but you really do forget how
strong gravity is, you know, when you’re floating
around for a few days. And so, you know, just
standing up or walking straight, or leaning over, well
actually leaning over’s easy, it’s not falling over
when you start to lean over that’s a little bit hard. So, you just have to sort
of re-adapt to gravity.>>Thank you. [multiple speakers] [Applause]>>Do I see a Girl Scout there?>>Since I’m one of the
billion Girl Scouts, I want to know what is it like
being one of the space icons? [Laughter]>>Well congratulations
on being a Girl Scout. I wasn’t one, but I will
tell you a large percentage of the women astronauts
have been Girl Scouts. And I think a lot of the
skills that they learned as Girl Scouts are something
that have really helped them, you know, throughout
their whole lives. So, you know, it really
gives you the opportunity to learn some new skills,
learn about new subjects and, you know, I mean, I don’t
go around thinking of myself as an icon, you know,
on a day to day basis. [Laughter] But like I said in response
to an earlier question, I know how important it
was to me to see women and under-represented
minorities in jobs that they hadn’t
previously been in and that gave me the opportunity to really think about
it for myself. And so, I’m just really happy that I can inspire
others to do that too.>>Thank you. This side.>>Are you allowed to like, is
it easy to break a leg in space? [laughter]>>Well so, you don’t fall down
and trip, so it would be harder to get injured that way. But there are certain, you certainly could
get injured in space. And so, one of the things
we always have to think about is how are we going
to provide medical care to our astronauts on orbit? So, for example, every time
we had a shuttle flight, two of our crew members
were trained on some medical procedures. And, of course, we had
the opportunity to talk to doctors on the ground. On one of my missions
I was actually one of the medical doctors which
was a really scary thought for my crew members. [Laughter] So, when people go off for six
months on this station now, they actually have quite a
bit more medical training than I received, for example, for being a medical officer
on a shuttle mission. But one of the things we
have to think about is when we go someplace as far away
as Mars and we’re gone maybe two or three years, how
exactly we’re going to provide medical care? And so, we actually have a
group at Johnson Space Center that their job is to look at
that and they try out some of the training and some
of the equipment and some of the techniques on the
International Space Station.>>Thank you. This side. [Applause]>>My name is Steven and would
you ever, when you’re in space, what do you ever want to
visit the moon or Mars?>>Well sure. I would have loved
to have done it. Now the space shuttle was
not a vehicle that could go to either the moon or Mars. It was developed specifically
to be in orbit around the earth and to do a variety
of tasks there. And, of course, landing
on the moon you don’t need or want wings because there’s
no atmosphere on the moon. And so, wings are for, you
know, planets and other bodies that have an atmosphere. So, you think of a very
different kind of vehicle if you’re going to
land on the moon. Now Mars is very tricky
because it has an atmosphere but it’s much thinner
than Earth’s. And it’s kind of like the
exact wrong kind of atmosphere because it’s thick enough
that it causes extreme heating on the outside of the
spacecraft coming in for landing because you’re coming
in so fast. So, you have to figure out
how to survive that heating. But it’s not really thick enough
to slow you down that much. So, now you have to figure
out how to slow down too. So, we have landed, as you
may know, rovers on Mars. And it’s always kind
of dicey about whether or not they’re going to
survive that landing. When we land humans, it’s
going to be a much bigger, a much heavier kind of spacecraft that’s
going to need to land. And that’s actually one of
the big technical challenges of sending people to Mars is how
we’re going to land them safely.>>Thank you. [Applause] One more Girl Scout here.>>Are you able to keep in touch with your family
when you’re in space?>>Yeah. We are. So, when I was flying in space,
we mainly did it through email. And the folks on the ground
in Mission Control, you know, a couple of times a day. So, we’d write messages in
space, for example, and a couple of times a day they
would download them, and they could get them to our
families and sort of vice versa. And each time I went into space
I got one either phone call or sort of a video
call with my family. Now today on the International
Space Station it’s quite a bit better. So, for example, people can
call any phone number on Earth from the International Space
Station as long as they’re in sight of a communications
satellite, which they are almost
all of the time. And so, people can call
their families, you know, most of our astronauts
have kids. Maybe they’re in a big
sports event and they’re able to call their families,
their sons or daughters after that and check in. And so, they’re able
to use the phone. And then, I think, once a week
they do a video conference with their families. So, that’s all in addition to also having the
email capability. So, it allows them while
they’re away for that six months to really stay in
touch with their family which is really important to
all of the family members.>>Thank you. I don’t want to think
about the roaming charges, though [laughter]. On this side.>>Could you play an
instrument on space?>>You can, and I did. So, I played, as I
mentioned I was in music. I played the flute. And so, on my first shuttle
mission I did get the opportunity to take
my flute in space. It was, we were using it as part
of an educational film or video that we were developing to
show people kind of what we do in space and the differences of
the living and working in space from living and working
on earth. So, I got just one opportunity
to play my flute in space. In general shuttle
flights were really busy. And so, it was kind of difficult
to sort of do any hobby, music or anything else. Now on the space station
we do let crew members take up a musical instrument
or something else that has to do with their hobby. People have taken up art
supplies or quilting supplies, you know, so that they
have a little bit of time on the weekends in which they
can engage in a hobby that they like to do here on earth. Because we want to make sure,
when you’re gone for six months and you’re living and
working in the same spot, you need something that makes
you feel like you’re off duty and you’re having
some leisure time. And so, people do like to
continue to do their hobbies if it’s at all possible.>>Thank you. Here.>>Was training hard?>>Is –>>Training.>>Was training hard?>>Was training hard? Well I tried to describe
a little bit of it. A lot of it, as I mentioned,
was a lot like school. So, it’s like studying. You had to learn new things
and you got tested on it. But I thought it was really
interesting, so I enjoyed it. And I really enjoyed
learning to do things like operate the robot arm. You know, I think overall
the hardest part of preparing for a shuttle mission was just
that you were trying to learn about so many different
things at one time. So, all about the shuttle
systems, the robot arm, the science experiments
that we were doing, a lot of emergency procedures. So, it was just sort of
trying to remember, you know, all the things that you had
learned and all the little tips that everybody had given
you before you were about to do a procedure.>>Thank you. I’m afraid we have time
for just one more question. So, please ask your question.>>Thank you for coming to SDSU,
but I just had a quick question. How did it feel to be the first
Latina to ever go in space? You’re one of Mexican descent. How did that impact your
life during the time that you were in space?>>Well you know while I
was in space I don’t think, you know, it made a difference. I mean, I’d been working with
my crew for about a year ahead of that mission and
we had a job to do. And so, we were just
working together as a crew to get that done. Where it really started to make
a difference was after I landed. Because, of course, as I mentioned all
astronauts are involved in educational activities
and they go around and talk to schools and school groups and
lots of other kinds of groups. But, of course, I got
many, many invitations which continue to this day. Particularly talk
to groups at schools with a high Hispanic population
or programs that are designed to get girls or Hispanics
interested in STEM fields. And so, that’s been a whole
extra dimension, I would say, to my job that maybe not
every astronaut gets to have. That has really added to
my career and to my life over the last 25,
close to 30 years now.>>Thank you.>>Thank you very much. And thank you all very
much for such excellent– [ Applause ] We’ll now wrap up this Q&A
and move into the next part of the program which
we call rapid fire. So, during previous President’s
Lecture Series we’ve enjoyed getting to know our
speakers by asking a series of allegedly fun questions
similar to the format of “Inside the Actor’s
Studio” for those of you familiar with the show. So, to get us started I would like to introduce our rapid
fire host, Ms. Daisy Galliana. Daisy. Daisy is a College
of Engineering alumna and is the regional
technical manager in the oil and gas organization
for Latin America at Solar Turbines Incorporated. Solar Turbines supports SDSU’s
Mathematics Science Engineering Advancement program or MESA for
short and the, thank you, and, it’s important, and the
Solar Turbine Center for Industrial Training and Engineering Research,
CITER partnership. Daisy has been a long
champion of the MESA Program and recently made a gift to name
the MESA Collaborative Annex in the engineering building. Thank you. Now please join me in
welcoming Daisy Galliana.>>Thank you. [ Applause ]>>So, we will start. What profession other than
yours would you like to attempt?>>Flutist. [Laughter]>>That’s good.>>That’s what I originally
thought I might do.>>What is your favorite
San Diego State memory?>>Wow. You know, I
was here five years. So, there’s a lot of memories. But I’ll tell you, this
one is a musical one, too. So, when I was in the wind
ensemble probably the most famous American composer living
at the time, Aaron Copland, came to San Diego State and he actually conducted
us in the wind ensemble. So, you know, when I tell
other musicians that, they’re like you were
conducted by Aaron Copland? That was very memorable.>>That’s good. What is the best piece of
advice you ever received?>>Well again, you know, so
many things to choose from. Probably one of the
most memorable pieces, so I’ll answer that question. Is so, when I first got into the
astronaut office, I think maybe when I was assigned
a flight, you know, one of the veteran astronauts
told me well don’t worry. There’s only two ways to
mess up as an astronaut. One, failing to follow the
procedures exactly as written and two, following the
procedures exactly as written. [Laughter] So, at the time I didn’t
think that was very helpful. But I think I eventually
understood what he was trying to tell me which is, you have to not only understand the
procedures but what led to them and in what cases you might
actually have to choose to do something a
little different.>>Great. Good advice. Tell us about a book
you recently enjoyed.>>Well I do like
reading memoirs. And so, there’s a couple
I’ve read this year that probably a lot of
other people have read. So, one is “Becoming”
by Michelle Obama. I thought that excellent
[applause]. And then I re-read,
and this was the 50th, put out for the 50th
anniversary of Apollo. The book by Michael
Collins who was on the Apollo 11 flight
“Carrying the Fire”. And so, if you’re
interested in a space book, I think that’s an
excellent one to read. And then I’ve also, of
course, had the opportunity to meet Michael Collins. I was actually on a panel with him earlier this
year at the JFK Library. And he is, in addition to
just being very talented, he’s got a great
dry sense of humor. And some of that comes
out in the book too.>>That’s good. Tell us about a person who
has influenced you the most.>>Well, I kind of
mentioned this earlier but I would have to say my mom. Because, you know, I just, she
was a person who, you know, wanted the best for
her kids and tried to give us all different
kinds of experiences. And, as I mentioned, she was
just very interested in learning and education in general and I
think that’s led to, you know, all of my brothers and sisters and me having careers
that we have enjoyed.>>That’s good. Good example. In five words or less, what
do you want your legacy to be?>>Well, you know,
I don’t spend a lot of time thinking
about my legacy. But, you know, I think
it boils down, you know, inspired others to become more.>>Nice [applause] I like it. [ Applause ] Well thank you Dr.
Ochoa for allowing us to get to know you better. I’d now like to welcome
President de la Torre to the stage conclude
our program. Thank you.>>Thank you, Daisy. [ Applause ]>>I’d like to thank Dr. Ochoa
again for joining us today and for sharing your
inspiring story. We’re so fortunate to
have you as a role model for the young men and women
pursuing their STEM careers. It is now my great
honor to present you with SDSU’s Presidential
Medallion. Please join me at the podium. [ Applause ] Before concluding our program,
we have one more final surprise. Dr. Ochoa is not only one
of the most notable alumni, but she is undoubtedly
considered to be our most famous
SDSU marching band alum. In fact, here she is
as a marching Aztec. [ Applause ] Dr. Ochoa, we have
some friends who wanted to drop by and say hello. [ Band Music ]>>Let’s go State! [ Band Music ]>>S-D-S-U. SDSU Aztecs fight. [ Band Music ] S-D-S-U. SDSU Aztecs fight. [ Band Music ] [ Applause ]>>What a perfect way
to end our program. Thank you again to Dr. Ochoa
and thank you to everyone for joining us for the
President’s Lecture Series. [ Applause ] [ Music ]

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